The results of alcohol abuse
First of all alcohol abuse leads to liver damage. Liver cirrhosis is one of its form that can bring to a lethal outcome.
The main symptoms and figures of acute liver cirrhosis:
Throphogene failure damages all organs and systems. Weight loss from 35 to 40% is considered fatal. Proteins in muscles and organs (i.e. liver, intestinal system, kidneys and heart) are lost along with the weight. Progressive protein loss leads to organs’ failure. Cardiac output and myocardial contractility are decreasing. Weakness and atrophy of respiratory muscles leads respiratory disorder and mucociliary clearance. The damage of intestinal system leads to atrophy of mucous membrane and loss of villi in small intestine that leads to malabsorbtion. Pancreas and small intestine dysaccharides failure is typical for liver cirrhosis.
The most pathologic change as immune function disorder is reveled by protein-calorie deficiency. Number and functional ability of T-lymphocytes decreases, B-lymphocytes, granular leucocyte ability, complement activity and anatomic barrier to infections fails.
Throphogene failure is related to metabolism disorder of proteins, lipids and carbohydrate. Decrease in creation of plasma proteins leads to low level of protein circulation that reflects as peripheral edema and ascite. Decrease of protein synthesis in muscles can lead to muscle atrophy. As the result of protein loss the production of hormones and enzymes, especially pancreas enzymes, decreases. Pancreatic maldigestion, deficit of bile acid and decrease of enterokinase synthesis leads to malabsobtion syndrome, increase throphoge failure and exacerbates the diagnosis.
Calorie loss is related to decrease of carbohydrates as the main source of energy (2% of patients with liver cirrhosis and 38% healthy people) and increase of lipids (accordingly 86 and 45%). This happen because liver stops producing glucose and glycogen decreases. After a meal people who suffer from liver cirrhosis quickly utilize carbohydrates because the liver fails to deposit them, then body starts using triglycerides as energy source.
On the other side, the disease while growing acute requires more metabolic cost even at rest. The early and severe throphologene failure is observed if a patient has alcoholic cirrhosis of liver. Endogenous depletion is worsened by exogenous factor of people who fail to follow elementary diet recommendations as they socially degrade and use alcohol to fill the body with “empty” alcohol calories while it requires nutrients, vitamins and microelements. People who consume more than 30% of calories from alcohol a day can suffer from lack of all nutrients.
All people who suffer from alcoholic liver cirrhosis have pancreatic maldigestion that is specified by different factors. First of all, synthesis of enzymes in pancreas decreases because of the general proteins lack. Secondly, alcoholic liver cirrhosis leads to alcoholic pancreas that causes pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Thirdly, alcohol leads to hyperacid condition that “acidulate” duodenum and inactivate acid-intolerant pancreatic lipase.
Nutrient malabsorbtion can be caused not only by enzymic failure of pancreas, but also by changes in intestinal system done by alcohol influence on bowel walls and hypoplasy of mucous membrane of the small intestine with folates lack. Frequent use of alcohol decreases intestinal activity if disaccharides (especially lactase). As the result symptomatic adoption of lactose is failed and it leads to severe diarrhea.
Alcoholism can be a reason for lack of a lot of the B-group vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folates, niacin, pantothenic acid and biotin), vitamin A and C as well as for deficit of microelements (zinc, selene and magnesium).
Alcoholics feel lack of thiamine even if they eat well. It can lead to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, Ceylon sickness and polyneuropathy. Riboflavin lack is typical for alcoholics especially for those who requiring hospitalization. Tests show that deficit of riboflavin can lead to decrease of proteins, amylase, chemotrypsinogen and trypsinogen and play a big role in pancreatic deficiency. Riboflavin is a precursor for two enzymes that make reactions such as intermediate metabolism of pyridoxine and folic acid. Thus the deficit of riboflavin leads to a repeated deficit of pyridoxine and folic acid.
Over 50% alcoholics suffer from the deficit of pyridoxine and it does not necessary lead to liver damage or hematology dysfunction. The deficit is determined by shortfall of nutrient with food, high destruction and low synthesis of vitamins.
It is well known that alcoholics have the deficit of folic acid. The lack of folates can lead to hypolase of mucous membrane of the small intestine and low absorption of other nutrients.
The deficit of B12 is recognized by 40% of people and related to the vitamin’s malabsorption. It can be observed even if there are no factors (ex. The syndrome of microorganism overgrow and ilialic dysfunction). The connection of vitamin B12 with a protein is broken while trypsin is blown into duodenum. The decrease of enzymes in pancreas prevents absorption of cobalamin as it is always connected with haptocorrin (binding protein) and enterohepatic cycle of vitamins.
Pancreatic maldigestion leads to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, E, K and D. The deficit of vitamin K inhibits blood coagulation, that is typical for liver cirrhosis. The lack of other fat-soluble vitamins also leads to throphogene disorder.
Alcoholics suffer from the deficit of microelements. Frequent alcohol users have low level of zinc as they decrease its supply, have malabsorption and profuse excretion of it with urine. The lack of zinc is acutely felt by patients with liver cirrhosis. Tests show that the deficit of zinc causes damage of acinar cells in pancreas and inhibit the synthesis of pancreatic protein. In this case the hormonal stimulation of bicarbonates and proteins is depressed. This effect is potentiated by lipids lack. The animal subjects showed the lack of selene leads to pancreatic degeneration and fibroses. The low level of selene can also cause damage of pancreas with free radicals. Thus the deficit of Zinc and Selene play a big role in developing alcohol and trophic pancreas.
Clinical aspects of cirrhosis are different and mainly caused by throphogene failure. Weakness, anorexia, weight loss, depletion of subcutaneous fat layer and muscles, widespread edemas, ascyte, cholelithiasis, hepatomegaly, achlorhydria and diarrhea are frequent symptoms of the disease. Some brown pigmentation spots are observed on dry pale cold skin; enlarge of parotid salivary gland, anemia, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, loss of libido, menolipsis. All these clinical manifestations depend on the level of throphogene failure and determine the way of patient’s life. That is why it is so important to reveal the failure at the first stage and correct it at once.
The treatment of cirrhosis in case of throphogene failure includes:
stop alcohol using;
start ultimate nutrition for patients (especially for those who suffer from cirrhosis);
replacement therapy with enzymes for pancreas;
replacement therapy with vitamins;
Oral and intravenous feeding with protein solutions if the synthetic function of liver is low.
To stop using alcohol is good not only for throphogene status, but also slow down the progress of cirrhosis. The ultimate feeding provides all essential elements (proteins, lipds and carbohydrates), vitamins, microelements and calories. The total caloric value should be no less than 2 000 kcal per day.
Changes in bile system can cause stomach ache if a person suffer from cirrhosis.
Biliary dyskinesia and cholelithiasis appear when cirrhosis and damage bile colloidal properties and bile function. Thus among all reasons for stomachache a biliary pain is on top. The pain can be visceral and somatic depending on the way of its origin.
Visceral biliary pain appears as a result of quick grow of intraductal pressure and bile wall and passages distention. Meanwhile the speed of increasing intraluminal pressure is dependent on pain intensity.
The grow of intraductal pressure is accompanied by sickness, vomiting without relive, other vegetative reactions. Visceral bilinary pain is related as liver or bile gripes. Between strokes you do not feel pain. Medical checkup shows a vague local pain in the pit of stomach and in the right hypochondrium; the level of bilirubin is rising as bile passages are blocked.
Somatic bilinary pain is defined by inflammation of stomach mucous and bile passages. While palpating the stomach shows pain in the right hypochondrium, protective intense of the front abdomen wall, restriction in respiratory functions while palpating the right hypochondrium, syndromes of abdomen irritation. As the result fever and blood leucocytosis are developed. To eliminate the pain use spasmolytic medicine. To cure acute inflammation of bile passages and abdomen is possible by operative treatment.
Alcoholic beverages strongly took place in human life a long time ago, and, nevertheless, for our organism alcohol was and remains toxin – poisonous substance. To be protected from influence of this poison couldn’t be any easier – it is enough to completely refuse from alcohol intake. But what can we do, if “it is impossible not to drink”? How to protect the organism from toxin and to avoid negative consequences of alcohol intake? Let's consider.
It is impossible to tell that the person is absolutely defenseless before alcohol - for many years of acquaintances with alcohol-containing products our organism created the defense line against this toxin. Activity of a biological antialcoholic board isn't constant, it can differ at different people and depends on many factors. First of all, the ability to resist to alcohol is influenced by heredity, sex, age, race, character and intensity of a metabolism, feature of mentality, existence of diseases of a liver, endocrine system and other chronic diseases aren't less important. It is necessary to understand that antialcoholic defense, in difference, for example, from muscles, cannot be trained and increased as a result of repeated influence of an irritant (alcohol consumption). With each new dose the ability of organism to annul alcohol imperceptibly, but stably decreases. That is why it is not necessary to test an organism for durability, abusing alcoholic beverages – sooner or later such "tests" will lead to inevitable consequences in the form of alcoholism, alcoholic cirrhosis, an alcoholic polyneuropathy, encephalopathy and still the whole bouquet of “alcoholic diseases”.
Toxic effects of alcohol
Alcohol is potentially toxic for each cell, each tissue and each organ of our body, however there are targets which it attacks first of all as a brain, a heart, a liver and organs of digestive system.
Brain. Alcohol destroys cells of brain, thus there doesn't exist a dose of alcohol that is in principle safe for a brain. It means, that even the minimum dose of the poison which has got with a current to a brain, is capable to do irreparable harm. In parallel alcohol changes development of dopamine and serotonin mediators, responsible for alcoholic euphoria - at the initial stage of alcohol intake, alcoholic dependence and an abstinence symptoms - at chronic abuse. Long regular consumption of alcohol leads to brain size decrease, death (necrosis) of its regions, increases risk of a rupture of capillaries and development of brain hemorrhages. Outwardly damaging impact of alcohol on a brain appears in disorders of the highest nervous activity – decrease in memory, mental capacities, abilities to the analysis, introspection and self-criticism.
Digestive tract. All departments of the gastrointestinal tract are vulnerable to alcohol, but the following organs suffer most: pancreas (pancreatitis development, including the hardest necrotic pancreatitis with a deadly outcome), stomach (formation of ulcers, development of gastritis and malignant tumors, heavy gastrointestinal bleedings) and small intestines (disorder of processes of digestion because of deficiency of enzymes). For organs of digestive system, as well as for a brain, there is no safe dose of alcohol.
Heart. Tissues and cells of heart are more resistant to toxic influence of alcohol, than a brain and digestive organs. 30 g per day in terms of pure alcohol is considered to be safe for heart dose of alcohol. In big doses alcohol damages cells of heart, leads to development of a cardiomyopathy, heart failure, heavy arrhythmia and even to a sudden death.
Liver. It`s the liver being the organ neutralizing alcohol by means of special enzymes – alcohol dehydrogenase . Stability of the person to alcohol influence depends on quantity and activity of these enzymes. 20 g per day (in terms of pure alcohol) is considered a safe for liver dose of alcohol overdose of alcohol leads to death of cells of a liver, their replacement by a connecting tissues (fibrosis, cirrhosis), to accumulation of a liver of fats (fatty hepatosis) and to development of hepatic insufficiency.
Besides the listed changes alcohol causes anemia development (direct damaging influence on erythrocytes), immunodeficiency disorder, hypovitaminosis (because of disorder of processes of absorption in intestines, developments of intestinal dysbacteriosis, disorder of work of a liver), breaks activity of immune system, causes development of male and female infertility, endocrine, gynecologic diseases etc. It is proved that adverse effect of alcohol is more expressed at women, than at men, it is connected with smaller activity and quantity of alcohol dehydrogenase in a female organism.
It is also necessary to consider that harm of alcoholic beverages is connected not only with negative effects of ethanol and products of its disintegration (first of all – acetic aldehyde) – they contain mass of other toxic substances, such as fusel oils, air, methanol, cobalt, preservatives which may also have impact on our organism. Heavy and irreversible changes are more typical for long alcohol intake or its consumption in big doses. However, «moderate abuse» can also lead to the extremely unpleasant consequences – for example, to hangover symptoms, an exacerbation of chronic diseases of organs of a digestive tract, a pancreas and a liver.
How to support an organism after a contact with alcohol?
It is possible to facilitate the condition after alcoholic poisoning by means of substances assistants which accelerate removal from an organism and neutralize alcohol and products of its exchange, restore cellular and tissue functions, support work of the damaged organs and optimize metabolism.
In rehabilitation after libations it is recommended to refuse fat, fried, smoked food, canned food, to drink to 2 l of liquid a day, it is possible to drink coffee – but no more than 3 cups per day.
We can accelerate process and to enter useful substances into an organism at deficiency of zinc appearing at abuse of alcohol and disturbing to restoration of an organism after alcoholic intoxication by means of the Italian medicine Zinal pro.
We can continue intake of dietary Zinal pro additive , as long as it is possible, especially if the situations connected with alcohol intake, periodically occur, as alcohol repeatedly increases speed of removal of zinc from an organism.
Importance of intake of medications with zinc increases at the conditions providing deficiency of this microcell due to alcohol intake, for example, at unbalanced nutrition, the diseases breaking absorption of zinc in intestines (intestines illness with diarrhea and fermental insufficiency, cirrhosis), increased need for zinc (at athletes) or active removal of zinc from an organism (at diabetes, intake of a depletive or other similar products).